Light easily can be defined as the electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived by the human eye. However, in physics is given a broader meaning and includes the full range of radiation, known as “electromagnetic spectrum”, including ultraviolet and infrared radiation and radio waves. The modern theoretical physics, described electromagnetic radiation as a set of particles called photons, which have well defined energy and momentum.
Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behavior and properties of light in the wavelengths of visible infrared and ultraviolet. Includes observation, analysis and manipulation of phenomena such as reflection and refraction, to name a few. The earliest optical studies were performed Euclid in Alexandria and back to 300 BC. Since then he has contributed significantly to the development of scientific knowledge and technology.
The term photon was introduced as an analogy of the electronic term in reference to the replacement of the electron by the photon in typical operations of electronics, such as processing, transmission and data storage. Photonics has been established as an autonomous science and is now present in everyday technologies such as optical sensors and telecommunications.
Quantum Optics is a research field in Physics dealing with the application of the laws of Quantum Mechanics to the study of light and its interaction with the matter. An important feature of Quantum Optics is the study of low intensity light, in particular light composed of a single photon.
The laser is a device that produces a beam of light, characterized by being thin, monochromatic and a very small divergence. Since its invention, the laser has found applications in different areas of science. For example, in medicine, is used in retina surgery, in art has contributed to holography and restoration, and in communications has allowed, together with the use of fiber optics, the develop of more efficient and expeditious information transmission.
Remote Sensing is defined as the acquisition of information about an object without being in physical contact with it. Information is acquired by detecting and measuring changes that the object imposes on the surrounding field, be it an electromagnetic, acoustic, or potential.